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The data partitions are usually spread over the remaining disk space. Fedora supports the following data partitions:

  • a partition for user programs (/usr)
  • a partition containing the users' personal data (/home)
  • a partition to store temporary data like print- and mail-queues (/var)
  • a partition for third party and extra software (/opt)

  • Once the partitions are made, you can only add more. Changing sizes or properties of existing partitions is possible but not recommended.

    Subdirectories of the root directory

    Directory Content
    /bin Common programs and tools such as ls, shared by the system, the system administrator, and available to all users. This directory is equivalent to Windows \system32.
    /boot The startup files and the kernel, vmlinuz. In some recent distributions also grub data. Grub is the GRand Unified Boot loader and is an attempt to get rid of the many different boot-loaders we know today. You probably seldom need to access this directory, unless you want to maintain different versions of the kernel.
    /dev Contains references to all the CPU peripheral hardware, which are represented as files with special properties. You can get a detailed view of the server's attached disk drives from this directory.
    /etc Most important system configuration files are in /etc, this directory contains data similar to those in the Control Panel in Windows. Important server components such as the web server, ftp server, email server, database server, etc. store their configuration data and passwords in this directory. It is absolutely necessary to protect this directory from unauthorized access. Users without root authority should not be able to browse or modify the contents of /etc.
    /home Home directories of the common users. You need to create a user name for general admimistrative functions of the server. Additional user names for ftp access can be created if required. The user root has a separate home directory (see /root). This directory can be set to span multiple hard disks during the os installation.
    /lib Library files, includes files for all kinds of programs needed by the system and the users.
    Directory Content

    Directory Content
    /lost+found Every partition has a lost+found in its upper directory. Files that were saved during failures are here.
    /misc For miscellaneous purposes.
    /mnt Standard mount point for external file systems, e.g. a CD-ROM or a network drive. Can be empty. The concept of mounting is similar to mapping a network drive in Windows but much more flexible since the mounting (mapping) can be applied to compressed files such as ISO images.
    /net Standard mount point for entire remote file systems. Can be empty.
    /opt Typically contains extra and third party software. Can be empty.
    /proc A virtual file system containing information about system resources. More information about the meaning of the files in /proc is obtained by entering the command man proc in a terminal window or your ssh session window. The file proc.txt discusses the virtual file system in detail. You can get detailed information of the server's processor from this directory.
    /root The administrative user's home directory. Be aware of the difference between /, the root directory and /root, the home directory of the root user.
    /sbin Programs for use by the system and the system administrator. Many third-party applications are installed in this directory, similar to \Program Files in Windows.
    /selinux Contains information for the selinux security model if it is deployed.
    /srv A Fedora package, once installed, and run by a user, can use /srv as a default location for data. The package simply must not own any directories or files in /srv.
    /sys Information of device drivers used by the system kernel when a device is added or removed.
    /tmp Temporary space for use by the system or user applications, cleaned upon reboot, so do not use this for saving any work. This directory can be set to span multiple hard disks during the os installation.
    /usr Programs, libraries, documentation etc. for all user-related programs. Many third-party applications are installed in the subdirectory /local of this directory (/usr/local), similar to \Program Files in Windows. This directory can be set to span multiple hard disks during the os installation.
    /var Storage for all variable files and temporary files created by users, such as log files, the mail queue, the print spooler area, space for temporary storage of files downloaded from the Internet, or to keep an image of a CD before burning it. This directory can be set to span multiple hard disks during the os installation.
    Directory Content
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